Ch. 7
with some Polish translations

Morse alphabet is a combination of duration of long and short signals - dashes and dots. Duration of dash is as long as three dots. Interval between dashes or dots equals one dot.

Alfabet Morse'a sklada sie z kombinacji dlugosci czasu dlugich i krótkich sygnalów - kresek i kropek. Dlugosc trwania kreski równa sie dlugosci trwania trzech kropek. Przerwy pomiedzy kreskami lub kropkami równa sie dlugosci jednej kropki.
Morse Code

The keys for sending Morse signals


(Sygnaly Morse'a w tych przypadkach lacza sie razem)

V V V - test letter - sygnaly wywolawcze - próbne
CQ - calling any station - wolam kazda (którakolwiek) radiostacje
DE - from - od (nadawca)
K    - invitation to transmit, go! - prosze nadawac
BK - invite receiving station to transmit - slucham, twoja kolejka
KN - "(" - invite a specific station to transmit - slucham wolanej stacji
SK - end of contact - zakonczenie polaczenia
AS - please stand by - prosze sluchac dalej
AS 5 - wait 5 minutes - prosze zaczekac 5 minut
PSE - please - prosze
HH - an error - pomylka!
SRI - sorry - przepraszam
IMI - "?" - the question mark, say again, repeat - (pytajnik) nie rozumiem
RPT - please repeat - prosze powtórzyc
TKS - thanks - dziekuje
VE - message understood - wiadomosc zrozumiala
BT - "=" - separation mark. Used at the end of a sentence when the next sentence will pertain to a different topic - oddzielacz. Uzywa sie na koncu zdania gdy nastepne sygnaly dotycza innego tematu.
AAA - the period. Used at the end of a sentence when the next sentence will pertain to the same subject - kropka. Uzywana na koncu zdania gdy nastepne sygnaly dotycza tego samego tematu.
R   - all received OK - odebralem, wszystko odebrane
AR - "+" - over, end of message - koniec wiadomosci, slucham
73 / 88 - most friendly greetings and hugs - najserdeczniejsze pozdrowienia
i usciski
VA - end of transmission - zakonczenie transmisji
CL - going off the air, clear - wylaczam nadajnik (skrót bardzo rzadko uzywany przez nas). Sygnaly Morse'a nadaje sie oddzielnie w wypadku CL.

Semi-automatic Morse key that I used. Manufactured by "Vibroplex" and named BUG (buzzing insect?).

Morse BUG key

Q-codes take the form of a question when followed by the question mark ?

QRG? = Tell me my exact frequency in kilocycles per second?
QRG   =Your exact frequency is ... kc.

QRH = Does my frequency vary?
Your frequency varies.

QRI = How is the tone of my transmission?
The tone of your transmission is: 1. good, 2. variable, 3. bad

QRJ = Are you receiving me badly?
I cannot receive you. Your signals are too weak.

QRK = What is the readability of my signals?
The readability of your signals is: (0. nil), 1. bad, 2. poor, 3. fair, 4. good, 5. excellent

QRL = Are you busy?
I am busy. Please wait.

QRM = Do you have interference?
Your transmission is being interfered by other transmitters:
1. nil, 2. slightly, 3. moderately, 4. severely, 5. extremely.

QRN = Are you troubled by static (atmospheric noise)?
I am troubled by static (1 - 5, as under QRM).

QRO = Shall I increase power?
Please increase power.

QRP = Shall I decrease power?
Decrease your power.

QRQ = Shall I send faster?
Send faster ( ... WPM - words per min.).

QRS = Shall I send more slowly?
Will you transmit more slowly (... WPM).

QRT = Shall I stop sending?
Discontinue transmission.

QRU = Have you any messages for me?
I have no more messages.

QRV = Are you ready?
I am ready.

QRW = Shall I inform ... that you are calling him on ... kc?
Please inform ... that I am calling him on ... kc.

QRX = When will you call me again?
I will call you again at ... (hours) on ... kc.

QRZ = Who is calling me?
You are being called by ... on ... kc.

QSA = What is the strength of my signals?
The strength of your signals is: 1. very weak, 2. weak, 3. fair, 4. good,
5. very good.

QSB = Are my signals fading?
Your signals are fading.

QSG = Shall I transmit ... telegrams at a time?
Transmit ... telegrams (or one telegram) at a time.

QSK = Can you hear me in between your signals
(and if so, can I break in on your transmission)?
I can hear you between my signals (break in on my transmission).

QSL = Can you confirm receipt of messages?
I am confirming receipt of messages.

QSM = Shall I repeat the last telegram I sent you or some previous telegrams?
Repeat the last telegram (or telegrams nos ...) you sent me.

QSO = Can you communicate with ...?
I can communicate with ... (direct or through ...).

QSP = Will you relay my message to ...?
I will send your message to ... (call sign).

QSV = Shall I send a series of V's on this frequency (or on ... kc)?
Please send a series of V's on this frequency (or on ... kc).

QSX = Will you listen to ... (call sign) on ... kc?
I will listen to ... (call sign) on ... kc.

QSY = Shall I change frequency to ... kc?
Change frequency to ... kc.

QSZ = Shall I send each word or group twice?
Send each word or group twice (or ... times).

QTA = Shall I cancel message nr ...?
Cancel message number ... as if had not been sent.

QTC = Have you any messages?
I have ... messages for you (or for ... ).

QTH = What is your position (location)?
My position (location) is ...

QTR = What is the correct time?
The correct time is ... hours (GMT).


AA = all after
AB = all before
ABT = about
ADR = address
AGN = again
AM = amplitude modulation
ANI = any
ANS = answer
ANT = antenna
ARND = around
AS = stand by
BCI = broadcast interference
BCNU = be seeing you
BD = bad
BK = break, I'm back, back to you
BN = all between, been
BTH = both
BTR = better
BUG = semi-automatic key
C  = yes, correct
CFM = confirm, I confirm
CK = check
CKT = circuit
CL = closing down station (my call)
CLD = called
CLG = calling
CLR = clear (usually re: weather)
CMG = coming
CNT = can't
CNTCT = contact
CONDS conditions
CPI, CPY = copy
CQ = calling any station
CS = call sign, call letters
CU = see you
CUD = could
CUL = see you later
CUM = come
CUZ = because
CW = continuous wave
DA = day
DE = from, this is
DIFF = difference
DLR, DLD = deliver, delivered
DN, DWN = down
DR = dear
DX = distance
ES = and
FB = fine business, excellent, OK
FER = for
FM = from, frequency modulation
FWD = forward
FT = feet
GA = go ahead, good afternoon
GB =good-bye, god bless
GD = good, good day
GE = good evening
GG = going
GL = good luck
GLD = glad
GM = good morning
GN = gone, good night
GND = ground
GUD, GVG = give, giving
HH = error in sending
HI = laughter, smile, high
HPE = hope
HQ = headquarters
HR = here, hear, hour
HRD = heard
HV = have
HVG = having
HVY = heavy
HW = how, how is, how copy?
K  = invitation to transmit, go ahead
MA = milliamperes

MI = my
MILS = milliamperes
MNI = many
MSG = message
N  = no, incorrect, negative
NIL = nothing, I have nothing for you
NM = nothing more, no more
NR = near, number
NW = now, I resume transmission
OB, OC = old boy, old chap
OK = all correct, fine
OP = operator
PBL = probable, preamble
PSE = please
PSN = position
PT = point
PWR = power
PX = press
R  = received OK, roger, right
RCD = receive, received
RE = regarding, concerning
REF = refer, referring to, reference
RFI = radio frequency interference
RIQ = radio equipment
RPT = repeat, report
RST = readability strength, tone rating
RX = receiver
SA = say
SED = said
SHD, SHUD = should
SIG = signal, signature
SKED = schedule
SN = soon
SRI = sorry
SSB = single side band
STN = station
SUM = some
SVC = service, prefix to service message
T  = zero (with numbers)
TFC = traffic, messages
TKS, TNX = thanks
TMW = tomorrow
TR = transmit
TT = that
TTS = that is
TU = thank you
TX = transmit, transmitter
TXT = text
U  = you
UR, URS = your, you are, yours
VFO = variable frequency oscillator
VY = very
W = watts
WA = word(s) after
WB = word(s) before
WRD(S) = word, words
WID = with
WK, WKD = work, weak, worked
WKG = working
WL = will, we'll, well
WPM = words per minute
WUD = would
WX = weather
XCVR = transceiver
XMAS = Christmas
XMTR = transmitter
XTAL = crystal
XYL = married young lady, wife
YR(S) = year(s)
X  = resistance

33 = fondest regards
55 = best success
73 = the most heartfelt greetings
88 = hugs and kisses

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